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  • PVD真空鍍膜過程的均勻性
  • 來源:發布日期:2019-07-26 21:48 瀏覽次數:
PVD真空鍍膜進程很是巨大,由於鍍膜道理的差異分為許多種類,僅僅因為都需要高真空度而擁有統一名稱。所以對付差異道理的PVD真空鍍膜,影響勻稱性的因素也不盡溝通。而且勻稱性這個觀念自己也會跟著鍍膜標準和薄膜身分而有著差異的意義。 薄膜勻稱性的觀念: 1.厚度上的勻稱性,也可以領略為粗拙度,在光學薄膜的標準上看(也就是1/10波長作為單元,約為100A),真空鍍膜的勻稱性已經相當好,可以輕鬆將粗拙度節製在可見光波長的1/10範疇內,也就是說對付薄膜的光學特性來說,真空鍍膜沒有任何障礙。 可是假如是指原子層標準上的勻稱度,也就是說要實現10A甚至1A的外貌平整,是此刻真空鍍膜中主要的技能含量與技能瓶頸地址,詳細節製因素下麵會按照差異鍍膜給出具體表明。 2.化學組分上的勻稱性: 就是說在薄膜中,化合物的原子組分會由於標準過小而很容易的發生不勻稱特性,SiTiO3薄膜,假如鍍膜進程不科學,那麽實際外貌的組分並不是SiTiO3,而大概是其他的比例,鍍的膜並非是想要的膜的化學身分,這也是真空鍍膜的技能含量地址。 3.晶格有序度的勻稱性: 這抉擇了薄膜是單晶,AG亚游集团官方网站,多晶,非晶,是真空鍍膜技能中的熱點問題,詳細見下。 主要分類有兩個大種類: 蒸發沉積鍍膜和濺射沉積鍍膜,詳細則包羅許多種類,包羅真空離子蒸發,磁控濺射,MBE分子束外延,溶膠凝膠法等等 一、對付蒸發鍍膜: 一般是加熱靶材使外貌組分以原子團或離子形式被蒸發出來,而且沉降在基片外貌,通過成膜進程(散點-島狀布局-迷走布局-層狀發展)形成薄膜。 厚度勻稱性主要取決於: 1、基片質料與靶材的晶格匹配水平 2、基片外貌溫度 3、蒸發功率,速率 4、真空度 5、鍍膜時間,厚度巨細。 組分勻稱性: 蒸發鍍膜組分勻稱性不是很容易擔保,詳細可以調控的因素同上,可是由於道理所限,對付非單一組分鍍膜,蒸發鍍膜的組分勻稱性欠好。 晶向勻稱性: 1、晶格匹配度 2、基片溫度 3、蒸發速率 二、.對付濺射類鍍膜,可以簡樸領略為操作電子或高能激光轟擊靶材,並使外貌組分以原子團或離子形式被濺射出來,而且最終沉積在基片外貌,經驗成膜進程,最終形成薄膜。 濺射鍍膜又分為許多種,總體看,與蒸發鍍膜的差異點在於濺射速率將成為主要參數之一。 濺射鍍膜中的激光濺射鍍膜pld,組分勻稱性容易保持,而原子標準的厚度勻稱性相對較差(因為是脈衝濺射),晶向(外沿)發展的節製也較量一般。以pld 為例,因素主要有:靶材與基片的晶格匹配水平、鍍膜氣氛(低壓氣體氣氛)、基片溫度、激光器功率、脈衝頻率、濺射時間。對付差異的濺射質料和基片,最佳 參數需要嚐試確定,是各不溝通的,鍍膜設備的優劣主要在於可否準確控溫,可否擔保好的真空度,可否擔保好的真空腔潔淨度。MBE分子束外沿鍍膜技能,已經 較量好的辦理了如上所屬的問題,可是根基用於嚐試研究,家產出產上較量常用的一體式鍍膜機主要以離子蒸發鍍膜和磁控濺射鍍膜為主。 The process of PVD vacuum coating is very complicated. Due to the different principles of coating, there are many kinds of PVD vacuum coating. Therefore, for PVD vacuum coating with different principles, the factors affecting uniformity are not the same. And the concept of uniformity itself will be different with the coating scale and composition of the film. Concept of film uniformity: 1. The thickness uniformity, can also be interpreted as roughness, watching it on the scale of the optical thin film (that is 1/10 of a wavelength as a unit, is about 100 a), the uniformity of vacuum coating has been fairly good, easy to control the roughness of 1/10 of the visible light wavelength range, that is for the optical properties of thin film, vacuum coating without any obstacles. However, if it refers to the uniformity on the atomic layer scale, that is to say, the surface flatness of 10A or even 1A should be achieved, which is the main technical content and technical bottleneck in vacuum coating. Specific control factors will be explained in detail according to different coating. 2. Uniformity of chemical components: Atomic group branch is in the film, compounds because of the scale is too small and it is easy to produce uneven characteristics of SiTiO3 film, if the coating process is not scientific, so on the surface of the component is not actual SiTiO3, and may be in proportion to the other, the plating film is not want the chemical composition of the membrane, it is also the technical content of vacuum coating. 3. Uniformity of lattice order: This determines that the film is monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, is a hot issue in vacuum coating technology, see the details below. There are two main categories: Evaporation deposition and sputtering deposition, including a number of specific types, including vacuum ion evaporation, magnetron sputtering, MBE molecular beam epitaxy, sol-gel method, and so on 1. For evaporation coating: Generally, surface components are vaporized by heating the target material in the form of atomic groups or ions, and settle on the substrate surface to form a thin film through the film-forming process (scatter - island - vagal - lamellar growth). Thickness uniformity mainly depends on: 1. Lattice matching degree of substrate material and target material 2. Substrate surface temperature 3. Evaporation power and rate 4. Vacuum degree 5, coating time, thickness. Composition uniformity: The uniformity of evaporation coating components is not easy to ensure, the specific factors can be adjusted as above, but due to the principle of limitation, for non-single component coating, evaporation coating components uniformity is not good. Crystallographic uniformity: 1. Lattice matching degree 2. Substrate temperature 3. Evaporation rate For sputtering coating, it can be simply understood as bombarding the target material with electrons or high-energy laser, and making surface components sputter out in the form of atomic groups or ions, and finally deposit on the substrate surface, undergo the film formation process, and finally form a film. Sputtering coating is divided into many kinds, in general, and evaporation coating difference is that the sputtering rate will become one of the main parameters. In the sputtering coating, the composition uniformity of PLD is easy to maintain, while the thickness uniformity of atomic scale is relatively poor (because it is pulse sputtering), and the growth control of crystal orientation (outer edge) is relatively general. With PLD For example, the main factors are: the lattice matching degree of target material and substrate, coating atmosphere (low-pressure gas atmosphere), substrate temperature, laser power, pulse frequency, sputtering time. For different sputtering materials and substrates, the best The parameters need to be determined experimentally and are different. The quality of coating equipment mainly depends on whether it can accurately control the temperature, ensure a good vacuum degree, and ensure a good vacuum cavity cleanliness. MBE molecular beam outer edge coating technology, has been The above problems are well solved, but basically used for experimental research, industrial production is more commonly used in the integrated coating machine mainly ion evaporation coating and magnetron sputtering coating.
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